College of Engineering

Cognitive Mesh: Making Cellular Networks More Flexible

UFL homepage

Project Information

  • "EARS: Collaborative Research: Cognitive Mesh: Making Cellular Networks More Flexible", National Science Foundation, January 1, 2014-December 31, 2017. This is a collaborative project with Dr. Pan Li at Case Western Reserve University and Miao Pan at University of Houston. University of Florida is the leading institution.
  • This webpage and the materials provided here are based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants CNS-1343356/CNS-1343220/CNS-1343361.

    Project Summary

    Innovative use of wireless devices such as smartphones in various mobile applications has exacerbated the congestion over cellular spectrum. On the other hand, many licensed spectrum blocks are left unused. Although cognitive radios (CR) technology has emerged as an enabler for unlicensed users to opportunistically access the unused licensed spectrum, most previous works commonly assume that each user is equipped with a CR which can operate across a wide range of spectrum. This may be possible in theory, but may not be practical for light-weight devices such as cell phones. How to effectively utilize the CR technology to build more flexible networks so that even non-CR capable devices can benefit from the opportunistic access to the unused spectrum is therefore in dire need. In this project, the PIs propose a novel cognitive mesh assisted cellular network (CMCN) and investigate: 1) the architectural design of CMCN so that unoccupied licensed spectrum can be efficiently utilized and non-cognitive cellular devices can benefit from the CR technology, 2) spectrum and energy efficient CR mesh router placement under uncertain spectrum availability, 3) how to construct a fine-grained spectrum map to facilitate efficient spectrum allocation and intelligent traffic delivery, and 4) experimental validation and implementation for the proposed design. The research outcome provides a viable solution to the spectrum congestion in cellular systems. Moreover, with this flexible architecture, telecommunication industries can be rejuvenated with new innovations, leading to further development of cellular networks with high capacity and better support of new applications such as mobile healthcare, which has significant impact on individuals' lives and further provides greater opportunities for job creation and economic growth. The results of the project will be disseminated through publications and presentations. Finally, this project will actively recruit and train minority students for the future workforce and mentor junior faculty.


    Personnel

    Principal Investigators

    Graduate Students

    Undergraduate Students


    Publications

    Copyright Notice

    Papers downloadable on this page are under copyright protection. Please read and conform to all applicable copyright laws. Most downloadable papers are in PDF format, which can be viewed by PDF reader freely available from Adobe. Your comments are always welcome, please drop me a line at fang@ece.ufl.edu

    Books

    1. 1.M. Pan, M. Li, P. Li and Y. Fang, Spectrum Trading in Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Networks, Springer, 2015.

    Papers in Refereed Journals or Magazines

    1. J. Wang, Q. Gao, M. Pan, X. Zhang, Y. Yu and H. Wang, "Towards Accurate Device-Free Wireless Localization with a Saddle Surface Model", accepted by IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.
    2. Y. Gong, C. Zhang, Y. Fang, and J. Sun, "Protecting location privacy for task allocation in ad hoc mobile cloud computing," IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing. Accepted for publication.
    3. H. Ding, Y. Fang, X. Huang, M. Pan, P. Li, S. Glisic, ``Cognitive capacity harvesting networks: architectural evolution towards future cognitive radio networks,'' Accepted for publication in {\em IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials}.
    4. B. Lorenzo, F. J. Gonzalez-Castano and Y. Fang, "A novel collaborative cognitive dynamic network architecture,'' Accepted for publication in IEEE Wireless Communications.
    5. H. Song, L. Yan, X. Fang and Y. Fang, "Control/user plane decoupled architecture utilizing unlicensed bands in LTE systems," Accepted for publication in IEEE Wireless Communications.
    6. H. Song, X. Fang and Y. Fang, "mmWave network architectures for future high-speed railway communications: challenges and solutions," IEEE Wireless Communications, vol.23, no.6, pp.114-122, December 2016.
    7. J. Liu, H. Ding, Y. Cai, H. Yue, Y. Fang and S. Chen, "An energy-efficient strategy for secondary users in cooperative cognitive radio networks for green communications," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications: Series on Green Communications and Networking (JSAC-SGCN), vol.34, no.12, pp.3195-3208, December 2016.
    8. H. Song, X. Fang and Y. Fang, "Unlicensed spectra fusion and interference coordination for LTE systems," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.15, no.12, pp.3171-3184, December 2016.
    9. W. Liao, M. Li, S. Salinas, P. Li, and M. Pan, "Energy-Source-Aware Cost Optimization for Green Cellular Networks with Strong Stability", IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing (TETC) , Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 541-555, December 2016.
    10. J. Wang, W. Ding, Y. Guo, C. Zhang, M. Pan and J. Song, "M3-STEP: Matching Based Multi-Radio Multi-Channel Spectrum Trading with Evolving Preferences", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), Vol. 34, No. 11, pp. 3014-3024, November 2016.
    11. X. Li, H. Ding, M. Pan, Y. Sun and Y. Fang, "Users First: Service-Oriented Spectrum Auction with a Two-Tier Framework Support", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), Vol. 34, No. 11, pp. 2999-3013, November 2016.
    12. L. Yan, X. Fang, G. Min and Y. Fang, "A low-latency collaborative HARQ scheme for control/user-plane decoupled railway wireless networks," IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol.17, no.8, pp.2282-2295, August 2016.
    13. P. Si, H. Yue, Y. Zhang and Y. Fang, "Spectrum management for proactive video caching in information-centric cognitive radio networks," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (Special Issue on Video Distribution over Future Internet), vol.34, no.8, pp.2247-2259, August 2016.
    14. J. Wang, Q. Gao, M. Pan, X. Zhang, Y. Yu and H. Wang, "Towards Accurate Device-Free Wireless Localization with a Saddle Surface Model", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (TVT) , Vol. 65, No. 8, pp. 6665-6677, August 2016.
    15. I. Sugathapala, I. Kovachevic, B. Lorenzo, S. Glisic, and Y. Fang, "Quantifying benets in a business portfolio for multi-operator spectrum sharing," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol.14, no.12, pp.6635-6649, December 2015.
    16. Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, Miao Pan and Zhu Han, "Matching and Cheating in Device to Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2156-2166, October 2015.
    17. M. Kangas, S. Glisic, Y. Fang, and P. Li, "Resource harvesting in cognitive wireless computing networks with mobile clouds and virtualized distributed data centers," IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking, vol.1, no.3, pp.318-334, September 2015.
    18. H. Zhao, M. Pan, X. Liu, X. Li, and Y. Fang, "Exploring fine-grained resource rental planning in cloud computing," IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, vol.3, no.3, pp. 304-317, July-September 2015.
    19. A. Thapa, M. Li, S. Salinas and P. Li, "Asymmetric Social Proximity Based Private Matching Protocols for Online Social Networks," IEEE Transaction on Parallel and Distributed System, vol.26, no.6, pp.1547-1559, June 2015.
    20. M. Li, S. Salinas, P. Li, J. Sun and X. Huang, "MAC-Layer Selfish Misbehavior in IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Detection and Defense," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.14, no.6, pp.1203-1217, June 2015.
    21. Z. Lu, W. Li, and M. Pan, "Maximum lifetime scheduling for target coverage and data collection in wireless sensor networks", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol.64, no.2, pp.714-727, February 2015.
    22. L. Yan, X. Fang, and Y. Fang, "Control and data signaling decoupled architecture for railway wireless networks," IEEE Wireless Communications, vol.22, no.1, pp.103-111, February 2015.
    23. M. Li, P. Li, X. Huang, Y. Fang, and S. Glisic, "Energy consumption optimization for multihop cognitive cellular networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.14, no.2, pp.358-372, February 2015.
    24. M. Li, S. Salinas, P. Li, X. Huang, Y. Fang, and S. Glisic, "Optimal scheduling for multi-radio multi-channel multi-hop cognitive cellular networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.14, no.1, pp.139-154, January 2015.
    25. Y. Long, H. Li, H. Yue, M. Pan and Y. Fang, `` SUM: spectrum utilization maximization in energy-constrained cooperative cognitive radio networks,'' IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications: Cognitive Radio Series, vol.32, no.11, pp.2105-2116, November 2014.
    26. H. Yue, L. Guo, R. Li, H. Asaeda and Y. Fang, `` DataClouds: enabling community-based data-centric services over Internet of things,'' ( invited), IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol.1, no.5, pp.472-482, October 2014.
    27. M. Pan, P. Li, Y. Song, Y. Fang, P. Lin, and S. Glisic, "When spectrum meets clouds: optimal session based spectrum trading under spectrum uncertainty," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.32, no.3, pp.615-627, March 2014.

    Papers in Refereed Conferences

    1. J. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Ding, H. Yue and Y. Fang, "Policy-based privacy-preserving scheme for primary users in database-driven cognitive radio networks," IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom), Washington, DC, December 4-8, 2016.
    2. S. Errapotu, J. Wang, Z. Lu, W. Li, M. Pan, and Z. Han, "Bidding Privacy Preservation for Dynamic Matching Based Spectrum Trading", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'16), Washington, DC, December 4-8, 2016.
    3. J. Wang, W. Ding, Y. Guo, C. Zhang, M. Pan, and J. Song, "Dynamic Matching Based Distributed Spectrum Trading in Multi-Radio Multi-Channel CRNs", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'16), Washington, DC, December 4-8, 2016.
    4. L. Niu, Y. Guo, H. Li, and M. Pan, "A Nash Bargaining Approach to Emergency Demand Response in Colocation Data Centers", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'16), Washington, DC, December 4-8, 2016.
    5. Y. Gu, L. X. Cai, M. Pan, L. Song and Z. Han, "Exploiting the Stable Fixture Matching Game for Content Sharing in D2D-based LTE-V2X Communications", IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'16) , Washington, DC, December 4-8, 2016.
    6. J. Wang, Y. Long, J. Wang, S. Errapotu, Y. Guo and M. Pan, "Distributed Spectrum Trading via Dynamic Matching with Evolving Preferences", IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC'16), Chengdu, China, July 27-29, 2016.
    7. Z. Lu, W. Wu, W. Li and M. Pan, "Efficient Scheduling Algorithms for On-Demand Wireless Data Broadcast", IEEE International Conference on Computer Communication (INFOCOM'16), San Francisco, CA, April 10-15, 2016.
    8. X. Li, M. Pan, Y. Song, Y. Sun, and Y. Fang, "Economic-robust session based spectrum trading in multi-hop cognitive radio networks," in IEEE Globecom, San Diego, California, 6-10 December 2015. Won the Best Paper Award
    9. Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, L. Cai, M. Pan, L. Song and Z. Han, "Exploiting Student-Project Allocation Matching for Spectrum Sharing in LTE-Unlicensed" in IEEE Globecom, San Diego, California, 6-10 December 2015.
    10. Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Song, M. Pan, Z. Dawy and Z. Han, "Tournament Based Incentive Mechanism Designs for Mobile Crowdsourcing," IEEE Globecom, San Diego, California, 6-10 December 2015.
    11. J. Liu, H. Yue, H. Ding, P. Si, and Y. Fang, "An energy-efficient cooperative strategy for secondary users in cognitive radio networks," in IEEE Globecom, San Diego, California, 6-10 December 2015.
    12. H. Ding, H. Yue, J. Liu, P. Si, and Y. Fang, "Energy-efficient secondary traffic scheduling with MIMO beamforming," in IEEE Globecom, San Diego, California, 6-10 December 2015.
    13. Y. Guo and M. Pan, "Coordinated Energy Management for Colocation Data Centers in Smart Grids", IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm 2015), Miami, FL, November 2-5, 2015.
    14. Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, M. Pan and Z. Han, "Student Admission Matching based Content-Cache Allocation", IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC'15), New Orleans, LA, March 9-12, 2015
    15. F. Sangare, A. Arab, M. Pan, L. Qian, S. Khator and Z. Han, "RF Energy Harvesting for WSNs via Dynamic Control of Unmanned Vehicle Charging", IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC'15), New Orleans, LA, March 9-12, 2015.
    16. Y. Pang, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Pan, Z. Han and P. Li, "Efficient Data Collection for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Clusters in Harsh Terrains Using UAVs," IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, 8-12 December, 2014.
    17. Y. Gu, Y. Zhang, M. Pan and Z. Han, "Cheating in Matching of Device to Device Pairs in Cellular Networks," IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, 8-12 December, 2014
    18. E. Pan, M. Pan, Z. Han and V. Wright, "Mobile Trace Inference Based on Tensor Voting," IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, 8-12 December, 2014
    19. T. Wu, C. Zhang, N. Yu and M. Pan, "Quadtree-based Optimal Path Routing with the Smallest Routing Table Size," IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, 8-12 December, 2014
    20. Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Pan and Z. Han, "Distributed Matching Based Spectrum Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks," IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, 8-12 December, 2014
    21. M. Pan, H. Li, Y. Pang, R. Yu, Z. Lu and W. Li, "Optimal Energy Replenishment and Data Collection in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks," IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM'14), Austin, TX, 8-12 December, 2014
    22. S. Salinas, C. Luo, W. Liao and P. Li, "State Estimation for Energy Theft Detection in Microgrids," The 9th International Conference on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom'14), Maoming, China, August 14-16, 2014. (Best Paper Award)
    23. W. Liao, M. Li, S. Salinas, P. Li, and M. Pan, "Optimal Energy Cost for Strongly Stable Multi-hop Green Cellular Networks," International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS'14), Madrid, Spain, 30 June - 3 July, 2014. (Acceptance ratio: 66/500 = 13%)
    24. Y. Liu, R. Yu, M. Pan and Y. Zhang, "Adaptive Channel Access in Spectrum Database-Driven Cognitive Radio Networks," IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'14), Sydney, Australia, 10-14 June, 2014.
    25. Y. Long, H. Li, Y. Hao, M. Pan and Y. Fang, `` Spectrum utilization maximization in energy limited cooperative cognitive radio networks,'' IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'14), Sydney, Australia, 10-14 June, 2014.
    26. Y. Gu, M. Pan and W. Li, "Maximizing the Lifetime of Delay-Sensitive Sensor Networks via Joint Routing and Sleep Scheduling," International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC'14), Honolulu, HI, 3-6 February, 2014.


    Outreach and Education Activities for Broader Impact

    Course Development

    The research in this project is one of the main topics in the courses EEL 4598/5718: Computer Communications and EEL 6591: Wireless Networks at University of Florida, the split-level courses ECE 4813/6813: Communication Theory and ECE 4823/6823: Digital Communications, and the graduate courses ECE 8823: Advanced Topics in Wireless Networks and ECE 8990: Wireless Communications at Mississippi State University, and various courses offered at Texas Southern University. The research outcomes and network design methodologies developed in this project have been channelized into the classroom.

    Student Mentoring

    With the project support, we have been able to support graduate and undergradate students to carry out fundamental research on cognitive radio networks and develop new technologies for next generation cellular systems and various mobile applications. Each week, each PI holds weekly research meeting to review the research progress and brainstorm new ideas. Moreover, through the skype, the PIs could communicate with research progress and exchange research ideas. During the whole collaborative research project, both graduate students and undergraduate students (including minority students) could not only learn to work on research problems together, but more importantly are trained on how to learn, think, and present, from which they could learn how to teach as well. Some graduate students have successfully landed academic jobs to continue to train future work force. This collaborative research project is indeed fruitful and has trained strong professional work force in telecommunications.

    Research Dissemination

    Our major results have been disseminated through presentations and publications in meetings, conferences, and journals. A substantial quantity of the materials of this project have also been made publicly available online here.

    Talks/Seminars

    1. Y. Fang, "Connected Things for Information, Communications, Computing, and Control (ICCC),'' School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China, December 21, 2016.
    2. Y. Fang, "Connected Things for Information, Communications, Computing, and Control (ICCC),'' College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China, December 13, 2016.
    3. Y. Fang, "Connected Things for Information, Communications, Computing, and Control (ICCC),'' Keynote Speaker, Future Industrial Internet Summit, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China, December 12, 2016.
    4. Y. Fang, "Connected Things for Information, Computing, and Control,'' Plenary Talk, First International Workshop on Cybersecurity and Computing, Chengdu, China, October 14-15, 2016.
    5. Y. Fang, "Connected Things for Information, Computing, and Control,'' Plenary Talk, International Workshop on Future Network Computing, Changsha, China, October 12-13, 2016.
    6. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' Keynote Speaker, The Future 5G on Wireless Communications and Networking Big Data (FWCN 2016), Jilin University, Jilin, China, August 9, 2016.
    7. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' School of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, June 30, 2016.
    8. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' College of Information Science and Technology, Zhongnan University, Changsha, Hunan, China, June 28, 2016.
    9. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' College of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan, China, June 27, 2016.
    10. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau, China, June 22, 2016.
    11. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' IEEE Distinguished Lecture, IEEE Vehicular Technology Society, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, June 17, 2016.
    12. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' IEEE Distinguished Lecture, IEEE Vehicular Technology Society, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, June 16, 2016.
    13. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' IEEE Distinguished Lecture, IEEE Vehicular Technology Society, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, June 13, 2016.
    14. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' School of Information and Communications Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China, May 31, 2016.
    15. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' School of Information and Communications Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning, China, May 26, 2016.
    16. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' Institute of Intelligent Information Processing \& Institute of Extensics, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, May 20, 2016.
    17. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' School of Electronic Engineering and Opto-Electronic Technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, May 18, 2016.
    18. Y. Fang, "Connected Things: Enabling Technologies for Information, Intelligence, and Decision Making,'' Department of Computer Science, Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas, May 6, 2016.
    19. Y. Fang, "Enabling Connected Things for Information, Intelligence and Control,'' Distinguished Lecture, 2016 Distinguished Lecture Series, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, April 21, 2016.
    20. Y. Fang, "A Collaborative Design of Spectrum Harvesting Networks", Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, November 3, 2015.
    21. Y. Fang, "A Collaborative Design of Spectrum Harvesting Networks", Huawei Technologies, Chengdu, China, October 21, 2015.
    22. Y. Fang, "A Collaborative Design of Spectrum Harvesting Networks", Keynote, The 7th International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP), Nanjing, China, October 15-17.
    23. Y. Fang, "A Collaborative Design of Spectrum Harvesting Networks,'' School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing, China, October 12, 2015.
    24. Y. Fang, "Cognitive Radio Networks: Design Challenges and Potential Solutions,'' Invited Talk, 2015 Workshop on New Frontiers in Control, Communications, and Computing (NFC3), Qinhuandao, Hebei, China, August 17-18, 2015.
    25. Y. Fang, "Cognitive Radio Networks: Design Challenges and Potential Solutions,'' Keynote, The 10th EAI International Conference on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom'15), Shanghai, China, August 15-17, 2015.
    26. Y. Fang, "Collaborative Design for Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Canada, January 21, 2015.
    27. Y. Fang, "Collaborative Design for Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Canada, January 19, 2015.
    28. M. Pan, "Spectrum Clouds: A Novel Spectrum Trading System for Multi-hop Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX, December 20, 2014.
    29. Y. Fang, "Self-organizing Cognitive Architecture for Collaborative Communications Networks,'' Invited Speaker, 2014 International Workshop on Advances in Information Coding and Wireless Communications(AICWC'2014), Chengdu, China, 28-30 October, 2014.
    30. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, July 25, 2014.
    31. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, July 24, 2014.
    32. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, July 21, 2014.
    33. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' School of Software, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, July 1, 2014.
    34. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China, June 23, 2014.
    35. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' School of Information Science and Technology, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning, China, June 20, 2014.
    36. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' School of Information and Communications Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning, China, June 19, 2014.
    37. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' School of Computer Science and Technology, Shenzhen Graduate Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, Guandong, China, June 17, 2014.
    38. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' School of Information and Communications, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, Guangxi, China, June 13, 2014.
    39. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' School of Computer Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, June 9, 2014.
    40. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, June 6, 2014.
    41. Y. Fang, "Architectural Design for Collaborative Cognitive Radio Networks,'' Department of Electronic Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea, May 21, 2014.
    42. Y. Fang, "Cognitive Radio Networks: Challenges and Possible Solutions,'' Institute of Information engineering, China Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, May 16, 2014.
    43. Y. Fang, "Cognitive Radio Networks: Challenges and Possible Solutions,'' Research Institute of Communication Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, May 15, 2014.

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